PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation
What is light? How can one explain the varied effects that involve light? What other forms of electromagnetic radiation are there?
- Introduction to PS4.B
- K-12 Progression and Grade Band End Points for PS4.B
- Performance Expectations Associated with PS4.B
- Additional Resources for PS4.B
Introduction to PS4.B
from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (pages 131-132)
Electromagnetic radiation (e.g., radio, microwaves, light) can be modeled as a wave pattern of changing electric and magnetic fields or, alternatively, as particles. Each model is useful for understanding aspects of the phenomenon and its interactions with matter, and quantum theory relates the two models. Electromagnetic waves can be detected over a wide range of frequencies, of which the visible spectrum of colors detectable by human eyes is just a small part. Many modern technologies are based on the manipulation of electromagnetic waves.
All electromagnetic radiation travels through a vacuum at the same speed, called the speed of light. Its speed in any given medium depends on its wavelength and the properties of that medium. At the surface between two media, like any wave, light can be reflected, refracted (its path bent), or absorbed. What occurs depends on properties of the surface and the wavelength of the light. When shorter wavelength electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) is absorbed in matter, it can ionize atoms and cause damage to living cells. However, because X-rays can travel through soft body matter for some distance but are more rapidly absorbed by denser matter, particularly bone, they are useful for medical imaging. Photovoltaic materials emit electrons when they absorb light of a high-enough frequency. This phenomenon is used in barcode scanners and “electric eye” systems, as well as in solar cells. It is best explained using a particle model of light.
Any object emits a spectrum of electromagnetic radiation that depends on its temperature. In addition, atoms of each element emit and preferentially absorb characteristic frequencies of light. These spectral lines allow identification of the presence of the element, even in microscopic quantities or for remote objects, such as a star. Nuclear transitions that emit or absorb gamma radiation also have distinctive gamma ray wavelengths, a phenomenon that can be used to identify and trace specific radioactive isotopes.
K-12 Progression and Grade Band End Points for PS4.B
from NGSS Appendix E: Disciplinary Core Idea Progressions
Grade Band Endpoints for PS4.B
from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (pages 132-133)
By the end of grade 2. Objects can be seen only when light is available to illuminate them. Very hot objects give off light (e.g., a fire, the sun). Some materials allow light to pass through them, others allow only some light through, and others block all the light and create a dark shadow on any surface beyond them (i.e., on the other side from the light source), where the light cannot reach. Mirrors and prisms can be used to redirect a light beam. (Boundary: The idea that light travels from place to place is developed through experiences with light sources, mirrors, and shadows, but no attempt is made to discuss the speed of light.)
By the end of grade 5. A great deal of light travels through space to Earth from the sun and from distant stars. An object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes; the color people see depends on the color of the available light sources as well as the properties of the surface. (Boundary: This phenomenon is observed, but no attempt is made to discuss what confers the color reflection and absorption properties on a surface. The stress is on understanding that light traveling from the object to the eye determines what is seen.)
Because lenses bend light beams, they can be used, singly or in combination, to provide magnified images of objects too small or too far away to be seen with the naked eye.
By the end of grade 8. When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object, depending on the object’s material and the frequency (color) of the light.
The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path bends. Lenses and prisms are applications of this effect.
A wave model of light is useful for explaining brightness, color, and the frequency-dependent bending of light at a surface between media (prisms). However, because light can travel through space, it cannot be a matter wave, like sound or water waves.
By the end of grade 12. Electromagnetic radiation (e.g., radio, microwaves, light) can be modeled as a wave of changing electric and magnetic fields or as particles called photons. The wave model is useful for explaining many features of electro-magnetic radiation, and the particle model explains other features. Quantum theory relates the two models. (Boundary: Quantum theory is not explained further at this grade level.)
Because a wave is not much disturbed by objects that are small compared with its wavelength, visible light cannot be used to see such objects as individual atoms. All electromagnetic radiation travels through a vacuum at the same speed, called the speed of light. Its speed in any other given medium depends on its wavelength and the properties of that medium.
When light or longer wavelength electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in matter, it is generally converted into thermal energy (heat). Shorter wavelength electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) can ionize atoms and cause damage to living cells. Photovoltaic materials emit electrons when they absorb light of a high-enough frequency.
Atoms of each element emit and absorb characteristic frequencies of light, and nuclear transitions have distinctive gamma ray wavelengths. These characteristics allow identification of the presence of an element, even in microscopic quantities.